Nouns in Plural / Существительные во множественном числе

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образование множественного числа

For putting nouns into the plural, we have to add the letter . There is a very important rule you need to know—we never have the letter ы after these letters:   к, г,  ш, щ, ж, ч, х  (about how to remember them easily read here)

In case, if there is one of these letters in the end of a word, the ending is (not ):

  • банк – банки (a bank – banks)
  • парк – парки  (a park – parks)
  • гараж – гаражи (a garage – garages)

The same thing happens if there is the soft mark (ь) or й in the end. But the difference is that, we are replacing them (not adding after) with the :

  • ночь – ночи (a night — nights)
  • отель – отели (hotel — hotels)
  • музей – музеи (museum — museums)

Regarding the feminine nouns (More about genders here), we are replacing the last vowel with the  or

We replace with the -ы, and we replace with the .

  • машина – машины (машинаы)   (a car — cars)
  • идея – идеи an idea — ideas

And don’t forget that it is impossible to have the letter after к, г, ш, щ, ж, ч, х. So, if the last letter -a follows one of those letters, you should replace it with the (not -ы)

  • девушка – девушки (девушкы)  (a girl – girls)
  • собака – собаки (a dog – dogs)

So about masculine and feminine nouns it is clear. We use endings or . But neuter gender nouns make plural in a little bit different way. For neuter nouns, we have to replace the last letter -о with the -а. And if a noun ends with the е, we replace it with the я.

  • окно  окна (a window – windows)
  • море  – моря (a sea – seas)

 

We also have some exceptions that make plural in a different way. You just have to remember them.

PLURAL NOUNS. EXCEPTIONS

  • Друг – Друзья (friend — friends)
  • Брат – Братья (brother — brothers)
  • Муж – Мужья (husband — husbands)
  • Жена – Жёны (wife — wifes)
  • Сестра – Сёстры (sister — sisters)
  • Дерево – Деревья (tree — trees)
  • Стул – Стулья (chair — chairs)
  • Город – Города (city — cities)
  • Паспорт – Паспорта (passport — passports)
  • Ребёнок – Дети (child — children)
  • Человек – Люди (person — people)
  • глаз – глаза (eye — eyes)
  • дом – дома (house — houses)
  • доктор – доктора (a doctor – doctors)
  • профессор – профессора (a professor – professors)
  • хозяин – хозяева (owner – owners)
  • мастер – мастера (a master – masters)

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