Preposition «в» (in) / Предлог «в»

In Russian we use the preposition «в» (in) when we are focusing on being inside of something. And don’t forget to use the prepositional case for location. For example,

    • Я в банке – I am in the bank
    • Я в Москве – I am in Moscow
    • Я сижу в машине – I am sitting in the car

In Russian we use the preposition «в» also for the destination, when in English is used the preposition «to». And here is used the accusative case, not prepositional.

  • Я иду в банк – I go to the bank
  • Я еду в Мадрид – I go to Madrid

And we also use this preposition for time and days of week.

    • У меня урок в 6 часов – I have a lesson is at 6 o’clock
    • Я не работаю в понедельник – I don’t work on Monday.

And we also use this preposition for clothes. For example,

  • Я в свитере – I put a sweater on (I am in the sweater)
  • Я в шляпе – I am wearing a hat.
    когда используется предлог в

 

Direct and Reported speech in Russian

Compare these two sentences:

  1. Она сказала: «Я подумаю об этом» – She said, «I’ll think about this».  
  2. Она сказала, что подумает об этом. –  She said, she would think about this

 

The first one is a direct speech (word to word as it was said by the author).The second one is a reported speech (retelling the author’s words). We the reported speech we change a subject to the third person (she would think about it).

PUNCTUATION IN DIRECT SPEECH

We use colon and quotes marks to single out the quotation.

  • Мама сказала: «Сегодня я не хочу работать!» – My mom said, «I don’t want to work today».
  • Папа сказал: «Вставай! Хватит спать!» – My father said, «Get up! Stop sleeping!»
  • Друг спросил: «Ты пойдёшь со мной в бар?» – My friend asked, «Do you go to the bar with me?»

But if the quotation goes before, we use a dash

  • «Сегодня я хочу работать,» – сказала мама.
  • «Вставай! Хватит спать!» – сказал папа.
  • «Ты пойдёшь со мной в бар?» – спросил друг.

 

PUNCTUATION IN REPORTED SPEECH

  • Мама сказала, что она не хочет сегодня работать. – My mom said that she didn’t want to work today.
  • Папа сказал, чтобы я вставал.  – My father said to me to get up.
  • Друг спросил, пойду ли я в бар с ним. – My friend asked me if I would go to the bar with him.

Pay attention, we always use a comma in Russian before the dependent clause (before words like «что», «чтобы», «когда», «потому что»). The conjunction is different depending on a type of a sentence. For indicative mood there is a conjunction «что», for the imperative mood we use the conjunction «чтобы», for questions we use a question word or a particle «ли» (if it is «yes-no» question without a question word).

  • ЧТО (that)

Ты сказал мне, что  хочешь пойти со мной. – You told me that you wanted to go with me.

  • ЧТОБЫ (for imperatives)

Мама сказала, чтобы я купил хлеб. – My mom told me to buy a bread.

  • ЛИ

Мама спросила, хочу ли я ужинать. – My mom asked me if I wanted to have dinner.

But if they asked something using the question word  (кто? что? где? когда? почему? как? etc.), do not use «ли»;  use the question word.

Мама спросила, почему я не хочу есть. – My mom asked me why I din’t want to eat.

 

The difference between conjunctions «а» and «и»

Both Russian conjunctions (и, а) are translated in English as «and«. Look at these examples to figure out when they are used.

когда употребляется и а когда а разница между и и а

We use «и» when we have same things.

Look at the example 2, she is saying, «I am Maria and that’s Maria too«. But when we have something different, we use «а«. Look at the example 1: She is saying, «I am Maria and that’s Max.» (Max is a different name from Maria).

So, if we focus on both of them together, we can say, «Это Мария и Макс»(This is Maria and Max).

And when we talk about them separately, we should say, «Это Мария, а это Макс»(This is Maria, and this is Max).

You should also know that we use the conjunction «а» at the beginning of question sentences when we question back. For example,

А: Как дела? — How are you?
Б: Хорошо! А как вы?  – Fine. And how are you?