Nouns in Plural / Существительные во множественном числе


examples of plural nous in russian
For putting nouns into the plural we have to add the letter . The very important rule you need to know is that we never have the letter ы after these letters:   к, г,  ш, щ, ж, ч, х  (about how to remember them easily read here)

In case if there is one of these letters in the end of a word, the ending is и (not ы):

  • банк – банки (a bank – banks)
  • парк – парки  (a park – parks)
  • гараж – гаражи (a garage – garages)

The same thing happens if there is the soft mark (ь) or й in the end. But the difference is that we are replacing them (not adding after) with the :

  • ночь – ночи (a night – nights)
  • отель – отели (hotel – hotels)
  • музей – музеи (museum – museums)

Regarding the feminine nouns (More about genders here), we are replacing the last vowel with the  or . We replace with the -ы, and we replace with the .

  • машина – машины (машинаы)   (a car – cars)
  • идея – идеи an idea – ideas

And don’t forget that it is impossible to have the letter after к, г, ш, щ, ж, ч, х. So if the last letter -a follows one of those letters, you should replace it with the (not -ы)

  • девушка – девушки (девушкы)  (a girl – girls)
  • собака – собаки (a dog – dogs)

So about masculine and feminine nouns it is clear. We use endings or . But neuter gender nouns make plural in a little different way. For neuter nouns we have to replace the last letter -о with the -а, and if a noun ends with the е, we replace it  with the я.

  • окно  окна (a window – windows)
  • море  – моря (a sea – seas)

образование множественного числа

We have also some exceptions that make plural in a different way. You just have to remember them.

PLURAL NOUNS. EXCEPTIONS

  • Друг – Друзья (friend – friends)
  • Брат – Братья (brother – brothers)
  • Муж – Мужья (husband – husbands)
  • Жена – Жёны (wife – wifes)
  • Сестра – Сёстры (sister – sisters)
  • Дерево – Деревья (tree – trees)
  • Стул – Стулья (chair – chairs)
  • Город – Города (city – cities)
  • Паспорт – Паспорта (passport – passports)
  • Ребёнок – Дети (child – children)
  • Человек – Люди (person – people)
  • глаз – глаза (eye – eyes)
  • дом – дома (house – houses)
  • доктор – доктора (a doctor – doctors)
  • профессор – профессора (a professor – professors)
  • хозяин – хозяева (owner – owners)
  • мастер – мастера (a master – masters)

Gender of Nouns / Род существительных

There are two types of nouns – animated (people) and inanimate (things). The gender of animated nouns is always obvious, “man” is a masculine noun (he), and “woman” is a feminine noun (she). In the English language all inanimate nouns are neuter gender (it). In Russian they can be masculine, feminine or neuter.

  • masculine (he)
  • feminine (she)
  • neuter (it)

It is easy to identify the gender of a noun. Everything you have to do is to look at the ending of the word.

 If the noun ends in a consonant (or -ь), that means it is a masculine gender noun. Feminine nouns end in -а, -я (sometimes in the  too). Neuter gender nouns have endings or  -е.

  • домa house (he)
  • машина – a car (she)
  • метро – metro (it)

There are very few exceptions. Nouns “имя” (name) and “время” (time) are neuter gender nouns even though they end with the feminine ending .

Род имен существительных. Как определить.