Adjectives / Прилагательные

Adjectives are special words for describing nouns.

  • Хороший человек –  nice person
  • Отличная погода good weather

The same adjective may have 4 variants of  endings. All these 4 words mean «beautiful».

  1. красивый
  2. красивая
  3. красивое
  4. красивые

For choosing the ending of an adjective look at the noun after and find out if it is a masculine, feminine, neuter or a plural noun. More about genders here.

  1. красивый телефон a beautiful phone (he)
  2. красивая машина – a beautiful car (she)
  3. красивое окно – a beautiful window (it)
  4. красивые машины – beautiful cars (they)

окончания прилагательных. рки

 

Normally the masculine ending is  -ый , but if before the ending there is one of these letters: к, г, ш, щ, ж, ч, х or the soft нthe ending will be -ий. Nouns with the soft -н- you should remember like exceptions. The good news, we don’t have many of them.

If the last syllable is stressed the ending is ой.

For describing feminine nouns, the endings are -ая or -яя . In most cases the ending is -ая, but if the masculine adjective has the soft —н- before -ий, feminine adjective will have the soft ending -яя. The same rule works and for neuter gender nouns and plural nouns (Use the second line in the table for the soft variant). But regarding the plural don’t forget about impossibility of having the letter after one of those seven letters, this is why the ending is -ий.

  • Красивый мужчина – Handsome man
  • Красивая девушка – Beautiful girl
  • Большой тетар – Big theatre
  • Большая улица – Big street
  • Большие города – Big cities
  • Маленький дом – Small house
  • Маленькая собака – Small dog
  • Маленькое кафе – Small cafe
  • Синий костюм – Blue suit
  • Синяя рубашка – Blue shirt
  • Синее море – Blue sea
 Learn more adjectives for practicing here.

Nouns in Plural / Существительные во множественном числе

образование множественного числа

For putting nouns into the plural we have to add the letter . The very important rule you need to know is that we never have the letter ы after these letters:   к, г,  ш, щ, ж, ч, х  (about how to remember them easily read here)

In case if there is one of these letters in the end of a word, the ending is и (not ы):

  • банк – банки (a bank – banks)
  • парк – парки  (a park – parks)
  • гараж – гаражи (a garage – garages)

The same thing happens if there is the soft mark (ь) or й in the end. But the difference is that we are replacing them (not adding after) with the :

  • ночь – ночи (a night — nights)
  • отель – отели (hotel — hotels)
  • музей – музеи (museum — museums)

Regarding the feminine nouns (More about genders here), we are replacing the last vowel with the  or

We replace with the -ы, and we replace with the .

  • машина – машины (машинаы)   (a car — cars)
  • идея – идеи an idea — ideas

And don’t forget that it is impossible to have the letter after к, г, ш, щ, ж, ч, х. So if the last letter -a follows one of those letters, you should replace it with the (not -ы)

  • девушка – девушки (девушкы)  (a girl – girls)
  • собака – собаки (a dog – dogs)

So about masculine and feminine nouns it is clear. We use endings or . But neuter gender nouns make plural in a little different way. For neuter nouns we have to replace the last letter -о with the -а, and if a noun ends with the е, we replace it  with the я.

  • окно  окна (a window – windows)
  • море  – моря (a sea – seas)

 

We have also some exceptions that make plural in a different way. You just have to remember them.

PLURAL NOUNS. EXCEPTIONS

  • Друг – Друзья (friend — friends)
  • Брат – Братья (brother — brothers)
  • Муж – Мужья (husband — husbands)
  • Жена – Жёны (wife — wifes)
  • Сестра – Сёстры (sister — sisters)
  • Дерево – Деревья (tree — trees)
  • Стул – Стулья (chair — chairs)
  • Город – Города (city — cities)
  • Паспорт – Паспорта (passport — passports)
  • Ребёнок – Дети (child — children)
  • Человек – Люди (person — people)
  • глаз – глаза (eye — eyes)
  • дом – дома (house — houses)
  • доктор – доктора (a doctor – doctors)
  • профессор – профессора (a professor – professors)
  • хозяин – хозяева (owner – owners)
  • мастер – мастера (a master – masters)

Gender of Nouns / Род существительных

There are two types of nouns – animated (people) and inanimate (things). The gender of animated nouns is always obvious, «man» is a masculine noun (he), and «woman» is a feminine noun (she). In the English language all inanimate nouns are neuter gender (it). In Russian they can be masculine, feminine or neuter.

  • masculine (he)
  • feminine (she)
  • neuter (it)

It is easy to identify the gender of a noun. Everything you have to do is to look at the ending of the word.

 If the noun ends in a consonant (or -ь), that means it is a masculine gender noun. Feminine nouns end in -а, -я (sometimes in the  too). Neuter gender nouns have endings or  -е.

  • домa house (he)
  • машина – a car (she)
  • метро – metro (it)

There are very few exceptions. Nouns «имя» (name) and «время» (time) are neuter gender nouns even though they end with the feminine ending .

Род имен существительных. Как определить.