Today lesson is for the advanced level students. We’re going to talk about adverbial participles 1 or in Russian “деепричастия 1”.
Деепричастие is a special form of verb which includes features of a verb and an adverb. So we use it as an additional action to describe the main action. Look at the example:
- Мальчик читает книгу и слушает музыку.
Or we can say:
- Мальчик читает книгу, слушая музыку.
It has the same meaning but as you can see in the second example the verb “слушать” has a different form. This is adverbial participle.
So as you can see from the example we use it when someone does two things at the same time:
So everything you have to to is just to replace the infinitive ending -ть of one of two verbs with the ending -я.
Here are some more examples:
- Работая целый день, я думал о тебе – I’ve been thinking about you during the whole work day.
- Он шёл улыбаясь – He was walking and smiling.
- Я читал книгу, смотря телевизор. – I was reading a book while I was watching the TV.
It was the adverbial participle -1. There is one more – Adverbial participle – 2. I will tell you about it next time.
Bye! Enjoy your weekend!
For a start compare these two images and say, where the person says with the direct speech (прямая речь) and where with the reported speech (косвенная речь).
She said, “I’ll think about this”. She said that she will think about this
As you can see from the example the direct speech is when we quote somebody. For example:
- Мама сказала: “Сегодня я не хочу работать!” – My mom said, “I don’t want to work today”.
- Папа сказал: “Вставай! Хватит спать!” – My father said, “Get up! Stop sleeping!”
- Друг спросил: “Ты пойдёшь со мной в бар?” – My friend asked, “do you go to the bar with me?”
In the reported speech we change people’s words a little. It is not a quote anymore:
- Мама сказала, что она не хочет сегодня работать. – My mom said that she doesn’t want to work today..
- Папа сказал, чтобы я вставал. – My father said to me to get up.
- Друг спросил, пойду ли я в бар с ним. – My friend asked me if I go to the bar with him.
So as you can see from the examples above to make reported speech in Russian you need to use the conjunction “что” (that) for retelling somebody else’s speech.
- Ты сказал мне, что хочешь пойти со мной. – You told me that you wanted to go with me.
But if they talked to you using a verb in the Imperative Mood, you should use the conjunction “чтобы” (that for imperatives).
- Мама сказала, чтобы я купил хлеб. – My mom told me to buy a bread.
If they asked something, it is better to use the particle “ли” after the verb:
- Мама спросила, хочу ли я ужинать. – My mom asked me if I want to have dinner.
But if they asked something using the question word (кто? что? где?когда? почему? как? etc.) – do not use “ли”, just use the question word:
Мама спросила, почему я не хочу есть. – My mom asked me, why I don’t want to eat.