Aspects of Verbs / Аспекты глагола

Russian verb has two aspects: imperfective and perfective. Usually when you start  to learn Russian you learn imperfective verbs only. Later you learn that almost every verb has its perfective aspect.

We use the imperfective aspect for verbs in two cases:

  • when we are focusing on the process of action
  • when we mean a general action (usually, sometimes, always, often, many times etс.)


  • Вчера я писал письмо 2 часа – Yesterday I was writing a letter for two hours. (focus on the process)
  • Я писал письма каждый день – I wrote letters every day. (many times)

We use the perfective aspect when we want to focus on the result:

Я написал письмо. Оно на столе. – I have written my letterIt is on my desk. (I focus on the result – the finished letter is on my desk)

difference between imperfective and perfective
Он писал письмо 2 часа.                        Он написал письмо.

Look at the other example to feel the difference between imperfective and perfective aspects:

aspects of verbs

 Она  готовила суп.

Она приготовила суп. Cемья сейчас ужинает.

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How to make an order at the restaurant

Everytime when we want to ask something we can use the phrase “Можно … ?”. We can translate it to English as “May I have … ?”
Thus, if you want to order food you can say,

Можно салат, пожалуйста?
May I have a salad, please?

how to order in the restaurant

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How to explain where countries and cities are

Whenever you talk about cities and countries you need to know the words naming parts of the world. That will help you to explain where this place actually located.

Части света /  Parts of the world

  • север – north
  • юг – south
  • запад – west
  • восток – east

I hope you remember that if you’re talking about location you have to use the prepositional case.

Which means that we have to add the ending – е  to the name of place. Look at the examples:

  • США на западе
    The USA is in the west
  • Япония на востоке
    – Japan is in the east
  • Норвегия на севере
    – Norway is in the North
  • Зимбабве  на юге
    Zimbabwe is in south.

how to tell about location in russian